The Orient, From Alexander To Muhammad
Archaeology – History – Architecture – Epigraphy

Version française ici

APOHR is one of the founding teams of ArScAn, since 1999. It follows the associated research team (ERA n°20) Archaeology of South Syria and the Petra area, created in 1978 and attached to the Centre de Recherche Archéologique (CRA) of the CNRS. With its new title, Archaeology of the Hellenistic and Roman Near East-APOHR, defined in 1999, the team immediately specified the geographical and historical framework (4th century BC-5th century AD) that characterised its founding research in Syria (South Syria, Bosra, Chahba/Philippopolis) and Jordan (Petra, Khirbet ed-Dharih). The plurality of the ancient worlds studied soon led her to open new fields of research in the Arabian Peninsula (Hegra), then in the Arabian Gulf in the Emirates (Mleiha/Oman Peninsula) and in Kuwait (Failaka), and to diversify its activity in Syria, its members carrying out research in Shâ’ra, Palmyra, Qalaat al-Mudiq/Apamea Citadel, Dura-Europos, Cyrrhus, and Saint-Symeon.
The geopolitical upheavals causing the closure of the Syrian field in 2011, the Yemeni field in 2015 (Shabwa, Makaynun), and the Ethiopian field in 2016 (Kwiha), led to the development of new archaeological missions in line with the team’s research themes, in Central Asia (Southern Tajikistan), the Arabian Peninsula (Farasan Islands, Upper Wadi Sirhan) and Jordan (Hauran, Umm as-Surab). From 2019 and 2022, the team has included the whole of the Roman Mediterranean, Egypt (Kharga Oasis) and Turkey. Chronologically, its field of competence has been extended to the early Islamic period (9th century).
Thus, the research conducted by the members of the team covers territories from the Mediterranean to Central Asia, from the conquest of the Persian Empire by Alexander to the Islamic conquest, while maintaining a special place for the Roman Empire, whose integration has opened them to the Mediterranean world in all its extension.
In order to better reflect this diversity, in 2023 APOHR changed its name to The Orient, from Alexander to Muhammad / OrAM – Archaeology – History – Architecture – Epigraphy.
The geographical and civilisational complex on which OrAM is conducting these studies was unified by Hellenism and its heritages, enriched by multiple exchanges, but also divided into numerous political and cultural entities (Greek, Nabataean, Greco-Bactrian, Parthian, Roman, Kushan, etc.). It was in this context that artistic, linguistic, religious and graphic innovations emerged and developed, which in turn were factors in the affirmation or formation of new collective identities. This circulation between unity and diversity, tradition and innovation constitutes the framework of the team’s research and justifies a broad geographical and chronological definition, making it possible to study the exchanges and syncretisms provoked by the constant contacts between these protagonists, which cannot be identified in a single place and time. Their fate during the later periods (Byzantine, Umayyad) preserves such an imprint of these past civilisations that it is necessary to consider them here too.

The team is made up of CNRS researchers and engineers, teacher-researchers, INRAP archaeologists (11 people) and PhD students (13). It welcomes many researchers assigned to other institutions or independent researchers (23).
Founded by Jean-Marie Dentzer, it remained under his direction until 1996, when he left for Damascus to become director of the Institut français d’Archéologie du Proche-Orient. It was then directed by Christian Augé (1996-2004) and then by Jacqueline Dentzer-Feydy from 2004 to 2010, with Pierre-Marie Blanc succeeding her from 2010 until 2020. Since then, the responsibility for the team is shared by Pierre-Marie Blanc, Thibaud Fournet and Mathilde Gelin.

The subjects treated by OrAM (Themes) give it a natural kinship with the other ArScAn teams working from the Near and Middle East to Central Asia (From the Village to the East, HAROC, Archaeology of Central Asia) and on the « classical » Mediterranean world (Archaeology of the Greek World, THEMAM, LIMC, ESPRI). The study of ceramics through the TessonnierS platform, of which OrAM is the determining actor, involves the participation of GAMA, VEPMO, Archaeology of Central Asia, Aegean World. Finally, OrAM is integrated into the research axes of ArScAn (axes 1, 2, 3, 4) and participates in the publication of work resulting from the Collective Projects.
In France, the OrAM team pursues numerous and continuous scientific collaborations with academics (Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres), CNRS researchers and teacher-researchers in Paris and the Paris region (UMR 8167 LESA; univ. Paris 4; UMR CEA CNRS UVSQ 8212; UMR 7209 Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle), in Limoges (CRIHAM, univ. Limoges), in Tours (univ. François Rabelais), in Lyon (HISoMA, Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée), in Bordeaux (Ausonius, univ. Bordeaux 3), Toulouse (école d’Architecture), Lattes (UMR 154) and Nice (univ. Sophia Antipolis). Her involvement in the Labex Les passés dans le présent and Dynamique des Territoires leads her to work in particular with the TGIR Huma-Num (UAR 3598), the laboratories Trajectoires (UMR 8215) and ANHIMA (UMR 8210). OrAM collaborates with the doctoral schools ED 112 of Paris 1 and ED 31 of Paris 8.
In Europe, it works with colleagues from the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut of Berlin, the universities of Basel, Geneva, Brussels, Berlin, Augsburg, Vienna, Graz, Bologna, Milan and Warsaw.
Internationally, OrAM’s numerous interventions abroad (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Tajikistan), necessitated by its archaeological missions, have led the team to establish partnerships with the Antiquities and Museums Directorates, the Academies of Sciences, and the History and Archaeology Institutes that conduct research there. It is involved with local universities, particularly in terms of its expertise for training courses but also for the dissemination of its research. In this way, OrAM is developing a partnership with the universities of Yarmouk and Maan (Jordan), Bir Zeit (Palestine) and King Saud (Saudi Arabia). It has set up international research agreements with the antiquities services of Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Yemen, with the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan and the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of Dushanbe. It has particularly close scientific and logistical links with the Institut français du Proche-Orient and the Centre français de recherche de la Péninsule arabique, in particular through the participation of team members as directors and researchers, with the Royal Commission for Al-Ula (Saudi Arabia), and the American Centre of Oriental Research in Amman.

The team conducts research at three UNESCO World Heritage sites: Petra in Jordan, Bosra and St. Symeon in Syria.

• French mission in Upper Jordan (Hauran and Umm as-Surab) (P.-M. Blanc, P. Gilento).
• French mission in Petra, Jordan (L. Tholbecq, F. Renel).
• Franco-Jordanian mission to Khirbet Ed-Dharih, Jordan (F. Villeneuve, Z. Al-Muheisen).
• Franco-Saudi mission in Hegra/Madain Saleh, Saudi Arabia (F. Villeneuve co-director until 2019, L. Nehmé, D. Al-Thalhi).
• Saudi-French Mission to the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia (S. Marion de Procé, M. Al-Malki).
• Franco-Saudi prospection mission in Upper Wadi Sirhan, Saudi Arabia (P. Piraud-Fournet).
• Franco-Kuwaiti mission of Faïlaka: the Hellenistic settlement, Kuwait (M. Gelin, scientific director).
• Mission of Kolaqan, island of Qeshm, Persian Gulf, Iran (P. Ghasemi).
• French-Tajik Mission of Southern Tajikistan, Tajikistan (M. Gelin, Y. Yakubov, T. Filimonova, A. Karaev).
• French Mission to the Kharga Oasis, Egypt (G. Tallet).
• Lebanese-French mission of Nahr Ibrahim, Lebanon (R. Harfouche).
• Epigraphic mission, Negev (M. Goréa).
• Epigraphic mission in Anatolia, Turkey (M. Goréa).

MISSIONS IN BREAK (publications in progress)
• French-Syrian mission in Bosra, Syria (P.-M. Blanc).
• French mission in Southern Syria (P.-M. Blanc).
• Lebanese-Syrian mission of Cyrrhus/Nebi Houri, Syria (J. Abdul Massih, Sh. Al-Shbib).
• French-Syrian Mission of Qalaat Al-Mudiq/Apamea Citadel, Syria (M. Gelin, Sh. Al-Shbib).
• French Mission of Kwiha, Tigray region, Ethiopia (J.-F. Breton).
• French-Tajik mission of Takht-i Sangin, Tajikistan (M. Gelin, T. Khudjagueldiev).

34 documents

Articles dans une revue

  • Valentina Alessia Beretta. The Anasyrma Fertility Ritual in Ancient Egypt: from Hathor to Hermaphroditus. Birmingham Egyptology Journal , 2024, 10, pp.22-35. ⟨hal-04447049⟩
  • Olivia Munoz, Kaïna Rointru, Mathilde Jean, Maria Paola Pellegrino, Caroline Renaux, et al.. New insights on Bronze Age funerary monuments in the Ḥajar foothills: surveys and excavations at Bisya (Ad-Dākhilīyyah, Sultanate of Oman). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 2024, Papers from the fifty-sixth meeting of the Seminar for Arabian Studies held in Aarhus 4–6 August 2023, 53, pp.173-193. ⟨10.32028/psas.v53i⟩. ⟨hal-04616330⟩
  • Thibaud Fournet, Gérard Charpentier. Les thermes romano-byzantins de Deir el-Qalaa. BAAL - Bulletin d'Archéologie et d'Architecture Libanaises, A paraître, Hors-Série XX. ⟨hal-03936034⟩
  • Maria Gorea, James D. Moore. AIBL-CIS de Ricci no. 2: A New Jewish and Aramaic Religious Text from Egypt Dating between the Early 2nd and Early 4th Centuries CE. Dead Sea Discoveries, In press. ⟨hal-03970641⟩
  • Mathilde Gelin. L’établissement hellénistique d'Ikaros-Faïlaka au Koweït. Arabian Humanities, A paraître, Bahreïn et ses voisins. ⟨hal-04223841⟩
  • Parsa Ghasemi. بررسی مجموعه گلمهرهای ساسانی بازگردانده شده از آمریکا در موزه ملی ایران. Journal of Iran National Museum, 2023, 3 (3), pp.75-112. ⟨10.22034/jinm.2023.704228⟩. ⟨hal-04073625⟩
  • Maria Gorea, James D. Moore, Verena Lepper. Papyri égyptiens et sémitiques de la collection du Cabinet du Corpus inscriptionum semiticarum. Comptes-rendus des séances de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, A paraître. ⟨hal-03970647⟩
  • Thibaud Fournet. Le grand temple de Deir el-Qalaa. BAAL - Bulletin d'Archéologie et d'Architecture Libanaises, A paraître, Hors-Série XX. ⟨hal-03940494⟩
  • Kamel Doraï, Pauline Piraud-Fournet. La vie mode d’emploi dans le camp de réfugiés de Zaatari – Jordanie. Analyse sociographique de l’habitat « de fortune » des réfugiés syriens. Gradhiva. Revue d'anthropologie et d'histoire des arts, 2023, 35, pp.112-135. ⟨hal-03945484⟩
  • Mathilde Gelin, Yusufsho Yakubov, Tatiana Guermanovna Filimonova, Gourguen Davtian, Islom Ashurmadov, et al.. Исследования Археологической миссии Южного Таджикистана в 2021 году. Археологические работы в Таджикистане, In press. ⟨hal-04223826⟩
  • Kamel Doraï, Pauline Piraud-Fournet. La vie mode d’emploi dans le camp de réfugiés de Zaatari (Jordanie). Analyse sociographique de l’habitat « de fortune » des réfugiés syriens. Gradhiva : revue d'histoire et d'archives de l'anthropologie , 2023, Les vies longues de la maison, 35, pp.112-135. ⟨10.4000/gradhiva.6994⟩. ⟨hal-04011666⟩
  • Mathilde Gelin. Исследования на городище Тахти-Сангин (Новые таджикско-французские исследования: программа и методика). Археологические работы в Таджикистане, 2019, 40, pp.140-163. ⟨hal-03286383⟩

Communications dans un congrès

  • Vladimir Dabrowski, Aline Garnier, Jérôme Rohmer, Ibrahim Al-Mshabi, Fabien Lesguer, et al.. How to supply a large urban population in the desert during Antiquity ? Archaeobotanical multi-proxy analyses on the caravan city of Thaj. The 57th Seminar for Arabian Studies, Jun 2024, Paris, France. ⟨hal-04630040⟩
  • Marie Laguardia. New Data on the Necropolis of Thaj: Evolution of the Funerary Architecture. 56th Seminar for Arabian Studies, Moesgaard Museum; Aarhus University, Aug 2023, Aarhus, Denmark. ⟨hal-04390660⟩
  • Marie Laguardia. La nécropole de Thaj: analyse des tombeaux et des gestes funéraires de l'âge du Fer à l'Antiquité tardive. Bahrain and its neighbours, Musée du Louvre, Nov 2022, Paris, France. ⟨hal-04390670⟩

Poster de conférence

  • Valentina Alessia Beretta. The Anasyrma Fertility Ritual in Ancient Egypt: From Hathor to Hermaphroditus. 10th Birmingham Egyptology Symposium, May 2023, Birmingham, United Kingdom. ⟨hal-04115937⟩

Proceedings/Recueil des communications

  • Bilal Annan. A multifaceted death: Funerary portraiture in Roman Jordan. Studies in the history and archaeology of Jordan, XIV, Department of Antiquities, pp.415-445, 2022. ⟨hal-04087490⟩

Ouvrages (y compris édition critique et traduction)

  • Marie-Françoise Boussac, Sylvain Dhennin, Bérangère Redon, Claire Somaglino, Gaëlle Tallet. Frontières et marges occidentales de l'Égypte, de l'Antiquité au Moyen Âge. Ifao. 2023, Bibliothèque d'études. ⟨hal-03982258⟩

Chapitres d'ouvrage

  • Gaëlle Coqueugniot. Aménagements mobiliers et immobiliers dans les bibliothèques de l'Orient gréco-romain. Laura Battini. Penser l'espace en Mésopotamie. Contributions à la compréhension spatiale à travers les aménagements : constantes, variables et accidents d'utilisation et d'interprétation, Archaeopress, A paraître. ⟨hal-04026761⟩
  • Mathilde Gelin, Ricardo Gonzalez Villaescusa, Gaspard Pagès. Humanités, introduction générale. Pagès G.; Clotuche R. Le rôle de l’artisanat dans la genèse et la structuration des agglomérations de la Gaule antique, Presses universitaires Paris Nanterre, pp.7-14, 2024, Ensemble, série Humanités 1. ⟨hal-04380425⟩
  • Alexandrine Roche. La fouille archéologique du centre-ville de Beyrouth au sortir de la guerre civile. Archéologie et fouilles en contexte difficile, Éditions de la Sorbonne, 2023, 9791035108540. ⟨10.4000/books.psorbonne.111340⟩. ⟨hal-04336597⟩
  • Jacqueline Dentzer-Feydy. Le décor architectural des tombeaux de Hégra. AlUla, Merveille d'Arabie, A paraître. ⟨halshs-03950585⟩
  • Mathilde Gelin. The defence of Takht-i Sangin. N. K. Ubaidullo, N. D. Khodjaeva, A. N. Odinaev; IHAET. Takht-i Sangin as an example of the synthesis of the civilizations of East and West, , pp.92-112, 2023, 978-99985-946-9-2. ⟨hal-04223835⟩
  • Mathilde Gelin. Terre crue et archéologie: de la physique du matériau à la restauration de vestiges architecturaux. Xavier Faivre. Argiles. De la physique du matériau à l’expérimentation, Archaeopress, pp.43-56, 2023, 9781789694208; digital: 9781789694215. ⟨hal-03475315⟩
  • Caroline Arnould-Béhar. Rétribution eschatologique et iconographie funéraire (Jérusalem, Ier s. av.-Ier s. ap. J.-C.). R. Burnet, E. Pastore, S. Ramond (eds.), Repenser la rétribution. Rethinking Retribution, Peeters, pp.387-398, A paraître. ⟨hal-03957164⟩
  • Jean-Philippe Carrié, Gaëlle Tallet. Vivre sur les marges : nomades et sédentaires autour d’une même oasis, Kharga, à la fin de l’Antiquité. Ifao. Frontières et marges occidentales de l'Égypte, de l'Antiquité au Moyen Âge, pp.287-309, In press. ⟨hal-03983692⟩
  • Pauline Ducret. Prévoir ou non le remploi dans les cahiers des charges républicains. Recyclage et remploi des matériaux de l’architecture aux périodes anciennes, A paraître. ⟨halshs-03955404⟩
  • Anaïs Lamesa, Jean-Claude Bessac, Claudia Sciuto. The archaeology of quarries and rock-cut sites. Claudia Sciuto, Anaïs Lamesa, Katy Whitaker and Ali Yamaç. Carved in Stone. The Archaeology of rock-cut sites and stones quarries, BAR Publishing, pp.1-8, 2021, 9781407358093. ⟨halshs-04443009⟩

Article de blog scientifique

  • Jean-François Breton. Fouilles de Shabwa VI. Le palais royal. Bibliothèque Archéologique et Historique T. 224. Presses de l'IFPO, Beyrouth. 2023. ⟨hal-04162631⟩
  • Catherine Saliou. Nouveau document sur un sanctuaire antiochéen (le Tychaion ?). 2023. ⟨halshs-04031341⟩


  • Aurélia Alligri, Céline Gillain, Caroline Claude, Annie Lefèvre, François Renel, et al.. Marly-la-Ville "Le Château - Phase 1", département du Val d'Oise (95). Rapport de fouille archéologique préventive du 28/09/2020 au 24/12/2020. Service départemental d'archéologie du Val d'Oise. 2023, 2 vol., 512 et 479 p. ⟨hal-03960344⟩
  • Mathilde Gelin. Mission archéologique franco-tadjike du Tadjikistan méridional. Quadriennal 2020-2023, suivi de: Projet 2024-2027. Commission des Fouilles, Ministère français de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères. 2023, 27 p. ⟨hal-04356380⟩
  • Piero Gilento, Jérôme Bouillon, Christophe Perrault, Véronique Chollet, Chloé Fraillon. Chanceaux-sur-Choisille, Prieuré, Rue de la grande ferme : Centre-Val de Loire, Indre-et-Loire. Inrap Centre - Île-de-France. 2023, 170 p. ⟨hal-04504385⟩
  • Mathilde Gelin, Tatiana Guermanovna Filimonova, Olivier Bordeaux, Albane Saintenoy, Hermann Zeyen, et al.. Mission archéologique franco-tadjike du Tadjikistan méridional. Rapport 2023. Suivi de: Opérations projetées pour 2024. Commission des Fouilles, ministère français de l'Europe et des Affaires étrangères. 2023, 46 p. ⟨hal-04356504⟩

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